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Communication Theories Defined

Communication Theories Defined

Defining Communication Theories in a technical environment is simple enough, if one’s knowledge base has a solid foundation. Applying or acknowledging the utilization of each theory into one’s daily existence however, produces interestingly thought-provoking results due to the human variable… an entity of perpetual analysis and transformation.
Communication is essentially a process, the production and exchange of more than just information; as a term, it encompasses such a wide variety of definitions.
“Communication” can be labeled as an expression, dependent on exponential variables; intended as an umbrella description to encompass a myriad of diversity and interconnectivity levels, to further engage and involve encoding, sending, receiving, decoding, synthesizing information, interpreting meanings, translating signals, and so on, to the infinite power. 
The following, however, are the official and technical terms of the theories to encompass the concept of communication.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
Cognitive Dissonance Theory argues that the experience of dissonance (or incompatible beliefs and actions) is aversive and people are highly motivated to avoid it. In their efforts to avoid feelings of dissonance, people will avoid hearing views that oppose their own, change their beliefs to match their actions, and seek reassurance after making a difficult decision.
Communication Accommodation Theory
This theoretical perspective examines the underlying motivations and consequences of what happens when two speakers shift their communication styles. Communication Accommodation theorists argue that during communication, people will try to accommodate or adjust their style of speaking to others. This is done in two ways: divergence and convergence. Groups with strong ethnic or racial pride often use divergence to highlight group identity. Convergence occurs when there is a strong need for social approval, frequently from powerless individuals.
Coordinated Management of Meaning
Theorists in Coordinated Management of Meaning believe that in conversation, people co-create meaning by attaining some coherence and coordination. Coherence occurs when stories are told, and coordination exists when stories are lived. CMM focuses on the relationship between an individual and his or her society. Through a hierarchical structure, individuals come to organize the meaning of literally hundreds of messages received throughout a day.
Cultivation Analysis
This theory argues that television (and other media) plays an extremely important role in how people view their world. According to Cultivation Analysis, in modern Culture most people get much of their information in a mediated fashion rather than through direct experience. Thus, mediated sources can shape people’s sense of reality. This is especially the case with regard to violence, according to the theory. Cultivation Analysis posits that heavy television viewing cultivates a sense of the world that is more violent and scarier than is actually warranted.
Cultural Approach to Organizations 
The Cultural Approach contends that people are like animals who are suspended in webs that they created. Theorists in this tradition argue that an organization’s culture is composed of shared symbols, each of which has a unique meaning. Organizational stories, rituals, and rites of passage are examples of what constitutes the culture of an organization.
Cultural Studies
Theorists in cultural studies maintain that the media represents ideologies of the dominant class in a society. Because media are controlled by corporations, the information presented to the public is necessarily influenced and framed with profit in mind. Cultural Studies theorists, therefore, are concerned with media influenced and framed with profit in mind. Cultural Studies theorists, therefore, are concerned with media influence and how power plays a role in the interpretation of culture.
This theoretical position compares life to a drama. As in dramatic action, life requires an actor, a scene, an act, some means for the action to take place, and a purpose. A rhetorical critic can understand a speaker’s motives by analyzing these elements. Further, Dramatism argues that purging guilt is the ultimate motive, and rhetors can be successful when they provide their audiences with a means for purging their guilt and a sense of identification with the rhetor.
Expectancy Violations Theory
Expectancy Violation Theory examines how nonverbal messages are structured. The theory advances that when communicative norms are violated, the violation may be perceived either favorably or unfavorably, depending on the perception that the receiver has of the violator. Violating another’s expectations may be a strategy used over that of conforming to another’s expectations.
Face-Negotiation Theory
Face-Negotiation Theory is concerned with how people in individualistic and collectivistic cultures negotiate face in conflict situations. The theory is based on face management, which describes how people from different cultures manage conflict negotiation in order to maintain face. Self-face and other-face concerns explain the conflict negotiation between people from various cultures.
The groupthink phenomenon occurs when highly cohesive groups fail to consider alternatives that may effectively resolve group dilemmas. Groupthink theorists contend that group members frequently think similarly and are reluctant to share unpopular or dissimilar ideas with others. When this occurs, groups prematurely make decisions, some of which can have lasting consequences.
Muted Group Theory
Muted Group Theory maintains that language serves men better than women (and perhaps European Americans better than African Americans or other groups). This is the case because the variety of experiences of European American men are named clearly in language, whereas the experiences of other groups (such as women) are not. Due to this problem with language, women appear less articulate than men in public settings. As women have similar experiences, this situation should change.
The Narrative Paradigm
This theory argues that humans are storytelling animals. The Narrative Paradigm proposes a narrative logic to replace the traditional logic of argument. Narrative logic, or the logic of good reasons, suggests that people judge the credibility of speakers by whether their stories hang together clearly (coherence and whether their stories ring true (fidelity). The Narrative Paradigm allows for a democratic judgment of speakers because no one has to be trained in oratory and persuasion to make judgments based on coherence and fidelity.
Organizational Information Theory 
This Theory argues that the main activity of organizations is the process of making sense of equivocal information. Organizational members accomplish this sense-making process through enactment, selection, and retention of information. Organizations are successful to the extent that they are able to reduce equivocality through these means.
Relational Dialectics Theory
Relational Dialectics suggests that relational life is always in process. People in relationships continually feel the pull-push of conflicting desires. Basically, people wish to have both autonomy and connection, openness and protective-ness, and novelty and predictability. As people communicate in relationships, they attempt to reconcile these conflicting desires, but they never eliminate their needs for both of the opposing pairs.
The Rhetoric
Rhetorical theory is based on the available means of persuasion. That is, a speaker who is interested in persuading his or her audience should consider three rhetorical proofs: logical, emotional, and ethical. Audiences are key to effective persuasion as well. Rhetorical syllogism, requiring audiences to supply missing pieces of a speech, are also used in persuasion.
Social Exchange Theory
This theoretical position argues that the major force in interpersonal relationships is the satisfaction of both people’s self-interest. Theorists in Social Exchange posit that self-interest is not necessarily a bad thing and that it can actually enhance relationships. The Social Exchange approach views interpersonal exchange posit that self-interest is not necessarily a bad thing and that it can actually enhance relationships. The Social Exchange approach views interpersonal exchanges as analogous to economic exchanges where people are satisfied when they receive a fair return on their expenditures.
Social Penetration Theory
This theory maintains that interpersonal relationships evolve in some gradual and predictable fashion. Penetration theorists believe that self-disclosure is the primary way that superficial relationships progress to intimate relationships. Although self-disclosure can lead to more intimate relationships, it can also leave one or more persons vulnerable.
Spiral of Silence Theory
Theorists associated with Spiral of Silence Theory argue that due to their enormous power, the mass media have a lasting effect on public opinion. The theory maintains that mass media work simultaneously with Majority public opinion to silence minority beliefs on cultural issues. A fear of isolation prompts those with minority views to examine the beliefs of others. Individuals who fear being socially isolated are prone to conform to what they perceive to be a majority view.
Standpoint Theory
This theory posits that people are situated in specific social standpoints-they occupy different places in the social hierarchy. Because of this, individuals view the social situation from particular vantage points. By necessity, each vantage point provides only a partial understanding of the social whole. Yet, those who occupy the lower rungs of the hierarchy tend to understand the social whole. Yet, those who occupy the lower rungs of the hierarchy tend to understand the social situation more fully than those at the top. Sometimes, Standpoint Theory is referred to as Feminist Standpoint Theory because of its application to how women’s and men’s standpoint differ.
Structuration Theory
Theorists supporting the structurational perspective argue that groups and organizations create structures, which can be interpreted as an organization’s rules and resources. These structures, in turn, create social systems in an organization. Structuration theorists posit that groups and organizations achieve a life of their own because of the way their members utilize their structures. Power structures guide the decision making taking place in groups and organizations.
Symbolic Interaction Theory
This theory suggests that people are motivated to act based on the meanings they assign to people, things, and events. Further, meaning is created in the language that people use both with others and in private thought. Language allows people to develop a sense of self and to interact with others in community.
Uncertainly Reduction Theory
Uncertainty Reduction Theory suggests that when strangers meet, their primary focus is on reducing their levels of uncertainty in the situation. Their levels of uncertainty are located in both behavioral and cognitive realms. That is, they may be unsure of how to behave (or how the other person will behave), and they may also be unsure what they think of the other and what the other person thinks of them. Further, people’s uncertainty is both individual level and relational level. People are highly motivated to use communication to reduce their uncertainty according to this theory.
Uses and Gratifications Theory
Uses and Gratifications theorists explain why people choose and use certain media forms. The theory emphasizes a limited effect position; that is, the media have a limithe effect on their audiences because audiences are able to exercise control over their media. Uses and Gratifications Theory attempts to answer the following: What do people do with the media?
Arlington Cemetery

Arlington Cemetery


zahira schmidt

Jeopardy Question:

On Jeopardy the other night, the final question was 
“How many steps does the guard take during his 
walk across the tomb of the Unknowns” —- 
All three contestants missed it! —

This is really an awesome sight to watch if you’ve 
never had the chance. 
Very fascinating. 

Tomb of the Unknown Soldier

How many steps does the guard take during his 
walk across the tomb of the Unknowns 
and why? 

21 steps: 
It alludes to the twenty-one gun salute which 
is the highest honor given any military or foreign 

How long does he hesitate after his about face 
to begin his return walk and why?

21 seconds for the same reason as answer number 1

Why are his gloves wet?

His gloves are moistened to prevent his losing his 
grip on the rifle.

Does he carry his rifle on the same shoulder all 
the time and, if not, why not?

He carries the rifle on the shoulder away from the 
tomb. After his march across the path, he 
executes an about face and moves the rifle to 
the outside shoulder. 

How often are the guards changed?

Guards are changed every thirty minutes, 
twenty-four hours a day, 365 days a year.

What are the physical traits of the guard 
limited to? 

For a person to apply for guard duty at the tomb, he 
must be between 5′ 10′ and 6′ 2′ tall and 
his waist size cannot exceed 30. 

They must commit 2 years of life to guard the tomb, 
live in a barracks under the tomb, and cannot 
drink any alcohol on or off duty for the rest of 
their lives. They cannot swear in public for the 
rest of their lives and cannot disgrace the 
uniform or the tomb in any way. 

After two years, the guard is given a wreath pin that 
is worn on their lapel signifying they 
served as guard of the tomb. There are only 
400 presently worn. The guard must obey 
these rules for the rest of their 
lives or give up the wreath pin. 

The shoes are specially made with very thick soles 
to keep the heat and cold from their feet. 
There are metal heel plates that extend to 
the top of the shoe in order to make the loud click as 
they come to a halt. 

There are no wrinkles, folds or lint on the uniform.

Guards dress for duty in front of a full-length mirror. The first six months of duty a 
guard cannot talk to anyone nor watch TV. 
All off duty time is spent studying the 175 
notable people laid to rest in 
Arlington National Cemetery .
A guard must memorize who they are and where 
they are interred. Among the notables are: 

President Taft,
Joe Lewis {the boxer}
Medal of Honor winner Audie L. Murphy, the most 
decorated soldier of WWII and of Hollywood fame.   

Every guard spends five hours a 
day getting his uniforms ready for guard duty.. ETERNAL REST GRANT THEM O LORD AND LET PERPETUAL LIGHT 

In 2003 as Hurricane Isabelle was 
approaching Washington , 
DC , our US Senate/House took 2 days 
off with anticipation of the storm. On the ABC 
evening news, it was reported that because of 
the dangers from the hurricane, the military 
members assigned the duty of guarding the Tomb 
of the Unknown Soldier were given permission 
to suspend the assignment.

They respectfully declined the offer, “No way, 
Sir!” Soaked to the skin, marching in the 
pelting rain of a tropical storm, they said that 
guarding the Tomb was not just an assignment, 
it was the highest honor that can be afforded 
to a service person. The tomb has been patrolled 
continuously, 24/7, since 1930. 

God Bless and keep them. 

We can be very 
proud of our young men and women
in the service no matter where they serve. God Bless America!

10 Reasons Why Change is Valuable

10 Reasons Why Change is Valuable

zahira schmidt

It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor is it the most intelligent that survives… It is those who prove to be the most adaptable to change that will survive, conquer, and dominate unchallenged.

Charles Darwin was onto something when he referenced adaptability. Change is the common denominator in all things that utilize progress whether positive or negative, and thus, change inevitably leads to constant innovation and inspiration.

The following are simply my top 10 reasons CHANGE is intelligent and extremely valuable. Feel free to add your favorite reasons as to why change is always a beginning in the comments.Thoughts of positivity are always welcomed and cherished.

You should always strive to be a part of change. Participating in the momentum of enrichment and enhanced cognitive development undoubtedly cultivates intelligence.

    • Without change, there is no forward motion. Forward motion is necessary for progress because if there is no motion, then you are stagnant and motionless.. in that case, you might as well be moving backwards… why would anyone desire the opposite of progress?
    • Change allows the opportunity of new knowledge to be available for assimilation, calculation, and the opportunity for our basic cognitive processes to result in perception, learning, and reasoning.
    • Change presents a new opportunity at every pass… EMBRACE it, grow with it, and learn everything you can from it. Opportunity is the expedition of possibility and favorable conditions with forward momentum towards ultimate goal attainment.
    • The most important thing change does? (DRUMROLL) It forces each and every one of us to learn how to adapt. Adaptability skills are the essence of survival… by improving our adaptability skills, we improve our position in life and our chances of ultimate survival. By learning to adapt, we develop valuable skills to be harnessed in the prevention of stagnation and decline.
    • Change does not necessarily force us, but it unquestionably mitigates and promotes our capacity for personal growth. Every time we are faced with a different task, obstacle, issue, problem, etc., we learn and grow from the experience. Growth is vital in order to flourish and thrive.
    • Change teaches us how to be flexible. Flexibility is key in any hurdle we are presented. It is less daunting to accept change than it is to resist it… why resist change? Whether the results produced are positive or negative, a valuable life lesson will always be there for you to reference in the off-chance, or likely possibility, that you face a scenario with a fairly general resemblance… Build your arsenal of expertise, references, and experiences.
    • Change has the amazing ability to develop our inner and personal strength. Each learning experience builds upon other learning experiences to build a solid foundation for us to stand confidently upon. The more we each solidify our foundations with new knowledge, the stronger we each become as independent individuals prepared to face whatever chooses to stand in our way.
    • As we develop our inner and personal strength, change helps improve our core beings. Challenges develop and build character, a most cherished and esteemed quality found in successful individuals.
  9. FRESH
    • Change, as simple and obvious it may seem, keeps life fresh! Change helps break up and dissipate the mundane. Who on earth desires a monotonous existence? Nobody, who proactively approaches life and its challenges or gifts, would scoff at the idea of keeping life fresh and alive. (fresh + alive = change)
    • Change breeds inspiration and produces unmatched creativity. To use a silly example: MacGyver! All the ingenuity we have all come to love and adore in the series were irrefutably the product of a change in whatever situation the hero seemed to find himself in 🙂

Change is life’s way of teaching us how to learn because after all, learning is the essence of growing, and growth essentially, is the essence of life itself… So LIVE, LEARN, ADAPT, & INSPIRE new and wonderful inventions and inspirations! BE AWESOME! BE GREAT! WIN!!

The Definition of Leadership & My Interpretation

The Definition of Leadership & My Interpretation



According to research, the definition of leadership is: a process in which an individual influences, directs, guides, and empowers others to achieve a common goal.


Peter Drucker claims the famous quote, “management is doing things right; leadership is doing the right things.”


My personal interpretation of leadership is constantly growing and becoming more defined as I gain knowledge and experience. What is it that distinguishes a leader from a follower? Personally, I believe every true leader learned how to follow before they learned how to lead. There are those who have a natural tendency to lead others and those who tend to wait for instruction but “great” leadership comes with experience, education, and practicing new acquired knowledge.


How do you gain experience? How do you gain education and knowledge? These are things that you must learn through research, practice, mentors, and learning from personal mistakes as well as the mistakes of others. Nobody is perfect and nobody knows everything. Experience is gained through failure. Show me a leader who hasn’t failed, and I will show you an individual who has never tried. Experience and knowledge stem from failure because mistakes must be learned from. Committing the same mistake and never learning is a version of insanity. The legal definition of insanity is “mental illness of such a severe nature that a person can not conduct his/her affairs due to psychosis, or is subject to uncontrollable impulsive behavior.” However, there is a more common definition that states, “Insanity is doing the same thing over and over again but expecting different results.” This has been attributed to Albert Einstein, Rita Mae Brown, and others but Rita Mae Brown is the only one who has the phrase published. Regardless, the phrase has caught hot water over the years because people take it too literally. All the phrase refers to is mistakes… If you touch something hot and you burn yourself, will you do it again? NO! And anyone who claims otherwise could probably be categorized into the legal definition of insanity 😛 The phrase does not refer to actions that take time and practice to perfect such as running or weight loss. Jim Collins said, “Reward excellent failures; Punish mediocre successes.” Failure should be utilized as a learning tool so as not to fail at the initial intended goal again. From failure rises success when positively motivated to always improve and learn.


Leadership can either be done well or not at all. A mediocre leader is a failed leader in my opinion. Colin Powell said, “ Leadership is solving problems. The day soldiers stop bringing you their problems is the day you have stopped leading them. They have either lost confidence that you can help or concluded you do not care. Either case is a failure of leadership.” A leader who is constantly motivating and empowering others is an individual who is building more leaders. A true leader develops more great leaders; an individual who keeps others as followers is not a leader.


Now, I must emphasize that a “great” leader is a person who knows how to get others to achieve the mission; however, there is a difference between an ethical leader and an unethical leader. An ethical leader may not be a good leader while an unethical leader has the power to motivate the masses. For example, let’s use Hitler as an individual who was an extremely unethical leader but he knew how to motivate others into achieving his mission and he did it well. The differences between a good leader and a bad leader differ immensely from an ethical leader and an unethical leader.


My personal philosophy on leadership is exactly that, a personal philosophy. I believe that in order to lead well, you must understand yourself first and foremost. How can the blind lead the blind? Not very well. When you understand yourself, everything in front of you becomes much clearer. Having the emotional intelligence to understand others stems from a COMPLETE understanding of yourself as a person. In gaining that knowledge, you gain insight into why and how others will react to a situation.


Leadership is: the courage to make ethical decisions; the determination to follow through on all actions; the perseverance to aim for success consistently; the humility to admit failure; the desire to learn from failure for future success; the constant pursuit of new knowledge; the drive to maintain forward motion in all actions attempted; the strength to be a mentor with the obligation of educating future leaders; the adamant attention to detail; the intelligence to understand, and utilize as a resource, the existence of individuals encompassing a higher level of knowledge or expertise than yourself; and a prevailing attitude of WINNING in everything you do.



Leadership is not solely having the power to tell someone what to do… quite the contrary. True leadership says, “Here, watch me and how I do this… OK… Now you try. I will help you understand and help you improve your skill set. How can I help you further?” A True leader focuses on developing followers into leaders.


Transformational leadership, in my opinion, is the only way to lead. However, one must fully understand one’s self before any attempt to lead others can succeed. How can the blind lead the blind?

I feel as if I simply identify with this style more so than any of the others but, I completely agree with the idea of being a situationally dependent leader. There will always be circumstances that require one to approach the situation from a different perspective and a different mindset. After all, the definition of insanity is simply doing the same thing over and over again but expecting a different result. Adaptability is incredibly crucial in any leadership position and that is the concept that sits at the heart of the principle coined by Darwin. Survival of the fittest has nothing to do with who is bigger, better, faster, or stronger but, who is smarter. Intelligence is adaptability and the pursuit of continued education, knowledge, and improvement.

Consistently and effectively seeking and achieving continued education and constant practiced knowledge are simply our greatest weapons against ignorance, which contrary to popular claims, is most definitely not bliss. Ignorance, in my opinion, is the precise opposite of bliss and it hinders far too many individuals in positions of leadership and power causing those in the follower position to thirst and crave for proactive quests of intelligence and true leadership.

When in a position of leadership, I have learned that I must actively seek out potential, and possibly better futures; simultaneously, I am required to motivate those around me to equally and as a team, believe and desire the goal ahead. By motivating myself, and being extremely positive and proactive, I can empower others and help them visualize achieving a goal that is simply sitting in front of them just waiting to be conquered and dominated.

Success driven goals are key in any form of leadership. The question is, what is the definition of success? This is a question I believe every leader must ask of himself/herself… “What does success mean to me?” “How do I define success and how can I attain it?” “How WILL I attain it?” I sincerely believe that every leader has to learn at one point or another that reflection of past events, regardless of whether they produced a positive or negative result, is the brain’s and the heart’s opportunity to attempt to understand what sequence of events must occur to either achieve a similar result or achieve an alternate result.

I personally went through something extremely traumatic a few years ago. The sequence of events that resulted in a violent catastrophe could have caused me to go one of two directions. I could have either sulked and cornered myself into a depressive state, allowing my emotions to control me by focusing on how everything made me feel as opposed to how I could avoid ever feeling this way again; OR I had the opportunity to experience the many emotional implosions associated with traumatic events, subsequently reflect upon each incident, thus resulting in the ability to learn through them, and label the incident as a learning experience that, although it was a very negative life lesson, it was a life lesson nonetheless. I could learn from this and teach myself that the sequence of events resulted in a negative outcome and that somewhere in the equation, a different insertion of action would be required to attain a different result. In order to avoid a negative cycle of impending doom, I have to resolve and understand where in the equation did the problem exist? The best path to the desired result of knowledge is adaptive self-reflection. I learned that I must process through past events in a positive manner. (This, unfortunately, requires a large quantity of energy and it can detrimentally influence a person possessing a weak will to submit to the abyss self-destruction through a downward spiral of negative emotion that continues to drain your essence further and further into darkness. I learned that it is imperative to be persistent about the desire to make the necessary changes in order to reach success. Weakness is a disease that could be demolished with the proper antidote or it can destroy you. If you are not willing to fight any longer, then waiting to perish while miserably crawling through unproductive days that will continue to increase in negativity is a waste of time and oxygen.

Effective reflection leads to learning; learning leads to knowledge; knowledge, when put into practice, can efficiently and effectively be accessed as a tool of awesomeness increasing intelligence. Negative thoughts that would have resulted in the development of feelings of worthlessness could cause a weak individual to fall into destructive and negative behaviors. Instead of unproductive thoughts of negativity, access it as a learning tool with insight into the cause and effect, slowly gaining courage and perseverance. By slowly adapting more positive courses of thought and action, I have learned that I have the ability to choose how I feel. I took back control of my life and my precious well-being.

I have learned that I should never regret anything I have experienced. Every situation was independently a priceless lesson in life that in turn, I either enjoyed and chose to repeat or, chose to understand that it was an action that occurred in the past, it cannot be changed, undone, or forgotten. Learn from it and proactively seek out a much better result by alternating the sequence of events and choosing to commit different actions to accomplish an alternative result. I sincerely believe that when an individual chooses to allow regret to act as a legitimate emotion, that individual is choosing to not accept responsibility for their involvement. Once you take responsibility and accept the consequences resulting from previous actions, the paralyzing negativity transforms into an understanding of self, and the mentality encouraging acceptance, understanding, and actively moving forward leads to adaptability in overcoming adversity and transitions those events of experience into insight.

Henry Ford used to say, “Whether you think you can or you think you can’t, you’re right.” We believe what we tell ourselves because it is simpler but, unfortunately, simpler is not smarter or more productive in any sense. Nothing worth striving for or worth accomplishing ever came easy. Easy breeds laziness and that is not conducive to effective leadership.

Effective and respected leadership is the outcome of determination, perseverance, and reflection of past situations with the intent of learning and improving in order to continue advancing. When we stop trying, and lose the motivation to constantly increase our knowledge base and improve, we as intelligent human beings die and leave behind an empty shell, useless in any endeavors for lack of intelligence and drive. We just take up space and waste time. Snap out of it!! No person in their right mind would ever want a leader comparable to Eeyore.

Failures are gateways to knowledge and wisdom that are required and should be demanded of anyone in a leadership role. However, it is the intelligence to understand the need to adapt that will lead to the wisdom craved. Thomas Edison very confidently said that he did not fail, not at all. Failure was never an option. He just simply succeeded in discovering 10,000 ways that did not work. The knowledge from that alone increases a leader’s understanding of self and in turn, once you can understand yourself, the understanding and active craving of inspiration together, begin a journey towards amazingness. Understanding the self is the biggest and most crucial step towards the learned ability to understand and therefor, effectively lead others.

Success is a crucial motivator towards adequate competence. Transformational leadership demands a knowledge base and skill set that is crucially dependent on personal integrity, optimism, innovation, creativity, and an active ambition that persistently views all scenarios as win-win and transforms any possible problems or issues into a challenge to further develop skills of excellence and unconventional visions which, in turn, morph into confidence, expertise, personal power, and intelligent behavior that is indicatory of an individual who is capable of intelligently leading others to become great leaders.

Guidelines to Enabling Knowledge

Guidelines to Enabling Knowledge

Knowledge is defined as justified true belief.


The essence of an organization’s activities resides in communication; communication among its members and communication with people outside the organization.

Instilling a Knowledge Vision:

  • Communicate the organization’s vision until the organization’s members begin to move to execute that vision.
  • By instilling an effective knowledge vision, the organization’s members will have a better understanding of the core values or justification criteria for knowledge management.
  • Knowledge vision indicates the justification criteria for knowledge creation.
  • The members of the organization must have a clear and concise understanding of what knowledge must be shared and with whom specific knowledge must be shared across functions and businesses.

Managing Conversations:

  • Managing conversations facilitates communication among an organization’s members.
  • Determining how to facilitate communication with regard to the organization’s activities, for example:Good conversation requires the right pacing and etiquette to achieve mutual insights.
    • Common language;
    • Clarifying and avoiding any misunderstandings and misinterpretations;
    • Encouraging active communication among members;
    • Creating an appropriate context for communication.

Knowledge activism has six purposes:

  1. 1. Initiating and focusing creation and sharing of knowledge;
  2. 2. Reducing the time and cost necessary for creation and sharing of knowledge;
  3. 3. Leveraging knowledge creation initiatives throughout the corporation;
  4. 4. Improving the conditions of those engaged in creation and sharing of knowledge by relating their activities to the company’s bigger picture;
  5. 5. Preparing participants in knowledge creation for new tasks in which their knowledge is needed;
  6. 6. Examining whether unique corporate knowledge needs modification in different aspects and analyzing whether unique corporate knowledge has become obsolete.

Creating the Right Context:

  • The strength of an organization is built on the tacit knowledge brought by the organization’s historical activities.
  • Creating the right context involves organizational structures that foster solid relationships and effective collaboration.
  • Organizational structures that enable conditions for knowledge creation should be those, which facilitate cross-functional, cross-business unit, cross-region activities.
  • The key is to structure an organization so that creation and sharing of knowledge throughout proceeds more effectively, more efficiently, and faster, dismantling as many individual and organizational barriers as possible.
  • Where knowledge creation and sharing is concerned, organizational structures should reinforce tacit-explicit knowledge interaction across many different boundaries.

Globalizing Local Knowledge:

  • It is crucial for the competitive advantage of a corporation operating globally that knowledge created in a certain local unit is disseminated to other local units effectively, efficiently, and quickly.
  • By globalizing local knowledge, corporations will be able to reduce time and cost for knowledge creation initiatives.
  • Building enabling infrastructure is critically important to facilitate globalizing local knowledge.

Good Conversations:

  • Good conversations are the cradle of social knowledge in any organization.
  • The exchange of ideas, viewpoints, and beliefs that conversations entail allows for the first and most essential step to knowledge creation: Sharing tacit knowledge within a micro-community.

(Posted 20130112)